In a study on genetic and epigenetic alterations in normal tissues, a group at the National Cancer Research Center found differential impacts on cancer risk: in the esophagus, both mutations and DNA methylation abnormalities increased as the carcinogenic risk rose, whereas mainly DNA methylation abnormalities increased the risk of stomach cancer. For esophageal cancer prevention, it seems important to stop smoking and reduce alcohol to suppress both point mutations and DNA methylation abnormalities. In gastric cancer prevention, it is important to prevent infection and eradicate Helicobacter pylori inducing DNA methylation abnormality.

AMED news release, January 23, 2018