By using an appropriate combination of progenitor cells, which were developed from iPS cells, the group was able to develop 3D structures of a functional kidney in vitro, including glomeruli with podocytes and renal tubules with proximal and distal regions and clear lumina.

Atsuhiro TAGUCHI et al., CellStemCell https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2013.11.010