6 scaffold-free conduits from human normal dermal fibroblasts were produced using a bio 3D printer and tested on twelve adult male rats which had undergone mid-thigh-level transection of the right sciatic nerve. The resulting 5-mm nerve gap was bridged using 8-mm bio 3D conduits and silicone tube. 8 weeks post-surgery scaffold-free bio 3D conduits composed entirely of fibroblast cells were shown to promote nerve regeneration

Hirofumi Yumie et al., PLOS One, https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0171448